The functions of organizing, leading, staffing, and budgeting are means of carrying out the decisions of planning. Everyone is a planner - a planner of meals, of work time, Of vacations, of families. Formal planning, however, distinguishes managers from non-managers, effective managers from ineffective managers.
Formal planning forces managers to think of the future, to set priorities, to encourage creativity, to articulate clear objectives, and to forecast the future in terms of anticipated problems and political realities. Long-Range Planning Long-range planning is vitally important in that it focuses attention on crucial future issues which are vitally important to the organization. It involves studying societal trends and issues, surveying current and anticipated learners' needs, and being aware of long-term research directions and changes in technology.
Many extension workers may think that such management is beyond their level of authority, control, or involvement.
They may feel that such management is the prerogative of the director, the deputy minister, or the president. However, while senior levels of management must be involved, those who implement the objectives resulting from long-range planning should also be involved. Strategic Planning Strategic planning has been defined as that which has to do with determining the basic objectives of an organization and allocating resources to their accomplishment.
A strategy determines the direction in which an organization needs to move to fulfil its mission.
Journal of Knowledge Management Practice,
A strategic plan acts as a road map for carrying out the strategy and achieving long-term results. Occasionally a large gap exists between the strategic plan and real results. To boost organizational performance, people must be a key part of the strategy. A stronger, more capable and efficient organization can arise by defining how its members can support the overall strategy Figure 1. Strategic planning is different from long-term planning. Long-range planning builds on current goals and practices and proposes modifications for the future. Strategic planning, however, considers changes or anticipated changes in the environment that suggest more radical moves away from current practices.
Download Management By Process A Practical Road Map To Sustainable Business Process Management 2008
When doing strategic planning, the organization should emphasize team planning. By involving those affected by the plan, the manger builds an organization wide understanding and commitment to the strategic plan Flemming, The strength and resilience of the traditional rural and farm population and the trend towards a decentralized society with more and more urbanites moving to the country suggest that successful rural communities will depend on people's ability to change, to adapt, and to work toward a better future.
In the s, facilitating farmer participation is a major extension activity Chambers, Reorganization provides a framework for longer-term commitment to rural development. Organizations and sub units are being encouraged to put work teams in place to ensure that each sector integrates staff and services into a cohesive, focused business unit. Consultation and participation are believed to be essential for the successful development and implementation of organizational goals and objectives.
Each work team is asked to develop an effective process for discussion of major challenges and opportunities facing the organization, if possible, over the next decade. Updated strategic plans are then developed. These plans form the framework for focusing organizational resources on the most strategic areas by using a staged approach. Updated plans are then implemented by work teams at all levels of management. Work-team objectives include: 1. Involving all levels of staff in consultation 2. Designing and implementing a process to develop-goals and objectives for the organization and unit; a strategic process for the next five to ten years 3.
- Beagling and Beagles.
- Recommended Resources.
- Turkey Recipes - Delicious Turkey Recipes for All Occasions (Tiffany Cooks Easy Gourmet Recipes Book 3).
- Management By Process A Practical Road Map To Sustainable Business Process Management 2008.
Defining and clarifying organizational structures and identifying functions, customers, and service delivery models 4. Identifying changes and staged approaches needed to move from the current situation to what will be required over the next three to five years 5. Identifying and recommending priorities for policy and programme development 6. Incorporating goals for expenditure reduction, service quality improvement, workforce management, accountability, technology, and business process improvement 7.
Stating the start date and first report date Figure 1. Managerial Planning If long-range planning can be linked to "macro," then managerial planning can be linked to "micro. Managerial planning focuses on the activity of a specific unit and involves what needs to be done, by whom, when, and at what cost. The strategic planning process serves as an umbrella over the management planning process which deals with the following: 1.
Establishing individual goals and objectives 2. Forecasting results and potential problems 3.
Developing alternatives, selecting alternatives, and setting priorities 4. Developing associated budgets 5. Establishing personnel inputs 6. Establishing specific policies related to the unit 7. Allocating physical resources 8.
Appraising how the management unit has succeeded in meeting its goals and objectives Decision making Closely related to both strategic and managerial planning is the process of decision making. Decisions need to be made wisely under varying circumstances with different amounts of knowledge about alternatives and consequences.
Decisions are concerned with the future and may be made under conditions of certainty, conditions of risk, or conditions of uncertainty. Under conditions of certainty, managers have sufficient or complete information and know exactly what the outcome of their decision will be.
Managers are usually faced with a less certain environment. They may, however, know the probabilities and possible outcomes of their decisions, even though they cannot guarantee which particular outcome will actually occur. In such cases, there is a risk associated with the decision and there is a possibility of an adverse outcome.
- Download Management By Process A Practical Road Map To Sustainable Business Process Management 2008?
- The River of Heaven: The Haiku of Basho, Buson, Issa, and Shiki?
- Which is The Best Supply Chain Management Book? Top 7 for Beginners!
Most managerial decisions involve varying degrees of uncertainty. This is a key part of a manager's activities. They must decide what goals or opportunities will be pursued, what resources are available, and who will perform designated tasks. Decision making, in this context, is more than making up your mind. It consists of several steps: Step 1: Identifying and defining the problem Step 2: Developing various alternatives Step 3: Evaluating alternatives Step 4: Selecting an alternative Step 5: Implementing the alternative Step 6: Evaluating both the actual decision and the decision-making process Managers have to vary their approach to decision making, depending on the particular situation and person or people involved.
The above steps are not a fixed procedure, however; they are more a process, a system, or an approach. They force one to realize that there are usually alternatives and that one should not be pressured into making a quick decision without looking at the implications. This is especially true in the case of nonprogrammed decisions complex and novel decisions as contrasted to programmed decisions those that are repetitive and routine.
One of the most difficult steps in the decision-making process is to develop the various alternatives. For example, if one is involved in planning a workshop, one of the most crucial decisions is the time, format, and location of the workshop. In this case, one's experience as well as one's understanding of the clientele group greatly influence the selecting of alternatives.
Download Management By Process A Practical Road Map To Sustainable Business Process Management 2008
Often decision trees can help a manager make a series of decisions involving uncertain events. A decision tree is a device that displays graphically the various actions that a manager can take and shows how those actions will relate to the attainment of future events. Each branch represents an alternative course of action. To make a decision tree it is necessary to: 1 identify the points of decision and alternatives available at each point, 2 identify the points of uncertainty and the type or range of alternative outcomes at each point, 3 estimate the probabilities of different events or results of action and the costs and gains associated with these actions, and 4 analyse the alternative values to choose the next course of action.
In extension, the decision-making process is often a group process. Consequently, the manager must apply principles of democratic decision making since those involved in the decision-making process will feel an interest in the results of the process. In such a case, the manager becomes more of a coach, knowing the mission, objectives, and the process, but involving those players who must help in actually achieving the goal. The effective manager thus perceives himself or herself as the controller of the decision-making process rather than as the maker of the organization's or agency's decision.
As Drucker has pointed out, "The most common source of mistakes in management decision-making is the emphasis on finding the right answer rather than the right question. It is not enough to find the right answer; more important and more difficult is to make effective the course of action decided upon.
Management is not concerned with knowledge for its own sake; it is concerned with performance.
Related Management by Process: A Practical Road-map to Sustainable Business Process Management
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved